30th Mississippi Infantry
(from Dunbar Rowlands "Military History of Mississippi, 1803-1898"; company listing courtesy of H. Grady Howells "For Dixie Land, Ill Take My Stand)
Company A -- Neill Guards (raised in Carroll County, MS)
Company B -- True Mississippians (raised in Lafayette County, MS)
Company C -- Choctaw Planters (raised in Choctaw County, MS)
Company D -- Dixie Heroes (raised in Attala County, MS)
Company E -- Yazoo Greys (raised in Yazoo County, MS)
Company F -- Capt. Allens Company (raised in Sunflower County, MS)
Company G -- Capt. Youngs Company (raised in Attala County, MS)
Company H -- Carroll Minute Men (raised in Carroll County, MS)
Company I -- Buckner Rebels (raised in Carroll, Holmes, & Yalobusha Counties, MS)
Company K -- Dixie Boys (raised in Carroll County, MS)
Colonels -- G. F. Neill, resigned, May, 1863; Junius I. Scales, captured at Chickamauga. Lieutenant-Colonels -- Junius Irving Scales, promoted June 18, 1863; Hugh A. Reynolds, killed at Chickamauga; James M. Johnson, wounded at Resaca.
Majors -- Hugh A. Reynolds, promoted June 21, 1863; James M. Johnson, promoted; John K. Alien. Adjutant -- Hobson Powell, killed in battle. Surgeons -- P. W. Peeples, George R. Griffith, -- Lauderdale. Chaplain -- W. T. Hall. Quartermaster -- T. S. Thredgill. Commissaries -- F. F. Gillespie, Charles Arnold. Sergeant-Major -- H. S. Smith.
Color Bearers -- Samuel Redus, killed at Murfreesboro; Edward Hope, wounded at Franklin.
Whole number, including field and staff officers, 763.
No official rolls in this department. Above data obtained from State register of original commissions, Sykes' Brigade Order Book, and E. A. Smith's "Record of Walthalls Brigade."
This regiment was raised by G. F. Neill, of Carrollton, under authority from President Davis, for service during the war; organized at Grenada and field officers elected April 12-14, 1862. The companies were all organized early in the year in the period when the twelve-month regiments were reorganizing, and doubtless included a considerable number of men who had experience. The regiment was particularly noted during the following three years for "dash, brilliancy, and courage."
Its service began when General Beauregard, with a great army at Corinth, was awaiting in his fortifications the slow advance of the army under General Halleck. May 11, the Thirtieth was reported, a new regiment, at Corinth. It was assigned with the Thirty-seventh and Forty-first Mississippi, to the brigade of Gen. Patton Anderson. Corinth was evacuated May 29 and the army fell back to the vicinity of Tupelo. General Bragg took command and in July transferred the main part of the army to Chattanooga, whence they marched across Waldron Ridge and into Kentucky in September. The Thirtieth was then in Anderson's Division, Hardees Corps, which was distinguished in the battle of Perryville, October 8. Anderson had four brigades, under Thomas M. Jones, John C. Brown, D. W. Adams and Samuel Powell, but the organization is not given in the official reports, until November, when the army had retreated through Cumberland Gap to Chattanooga. The Thirtieth was then in Jones' Brigade. Early in December Anderson's Division was broken up and the Thirtieth transferred to Polk's Corps for assignment to a new brigade under Col. E. C. Walthall, who was soon promoted as Brigadier-General. The brigade, then including the Twenty-fourth, Twenty-seventh, Twenty-ninth, Thirtieth Mississippi and Forty-fifth Alabama, was commanded at Murfreesboro by Gen. Patton Anderson. Lieutenant-Colonel Scales commanded the regiment. The brigade was formed in line of battle, mainly in a dense cedar forest, December 28, 1862. On the right extending to Stones River, was Chalmers' Brigade, and on the left the other brigades of Withers' Division, Manigault's and Deas'. In the Federal line, posted along the edge of a dense cedar brake, was Negley's Division of Thomas' Corps. Withers' Division, according to the plan of battle, was the last to attack. Deas was driven back in confusion, and Manigault, after two repulses, was put out of the battle for the day. "Anderson's left, being now moved forward immediately after the right of Manigault, was quickly engaged with the strong force in front. No brigade occupied a more critical position, nor were the movements of any invested with more important consequences. Opposite there were three batteries strongly supported by infantry. The capture of the batteries and rout of the supports was a necessity. Anderson was, therefore, directed to take the batteries at every cost. Stewart's Brigade had been moved up into the woods within close supporting distance. In rapid succession Anderson threw forward his regiments from left to right, and terrific was the fire to which they were subjected. Time and again checked, and almost recoiling before the tremendous fire, the regiments were as often rallied by their gallant and determined officers." (Withers.) The Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth were forced back in confusion upon his line, Stewart reported. Stewart was then ordered forward. "Anderson's right," Withers continues, "quickly rallying and pressing forward vigorously, attacked and drove back the enemy. This completed the rout of his first line and the capture of the batteries." Our loss, however, was very heavy, the Thirtieth Mississippi alone having, within the limits of an acre, 62 officers and men killed and 139 wounded." General Anderson said: "The Twenty-seventh, Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth Mississippi, all participating, but the Thirtieth suffering more severely than the others, captured a battery of from four to six guns, near a log cabin in the edge of the cedars, on the right of the Wilkinson pike, and not far from a well used by the enemy." (See Twenty-ninth Regiment). January 2 the brigade crossed the river to support Breckenridge, and, said Bragg, "this noble brigade drove the enemy back and saved all the guns not captured before its arrival." The casualties of the regiment, in the four days' battle, were 63 killed, including Lieuts. T. W. Boone, G. W. Hope, W. J. McGuire, J. C. McIntyre, D. R. Patton and E. R. Ridus, and 146 wounded.
Surgeon George R. Griffith was left in charge of the seriously wounded when the army retreated. Griffith reported, in February, sixty-eight of the Thirtieth in his care, and seventy of the other four regiments of the brigade. Bragg retired to the line of Duck Creek, and the brigade was in camp near Shelbyville and Lewisburg until the retreat to Chattanooga. Before the army retreated into North Georgia, Walthalls Brigade was sent to Atlanta, July 25, and the Thirtieth was stationed at the railroad bridge over the Chattahoochee River.
In the Chickamauga campaign Walthall's Brigade and Govan's Arkansas Brigade constituted Liddell's Division of W. H. T. Walker's Corps. On September 18 Walthall attempted to force a crossing at Alexander's bridge over the Chickamauga but finding the bridge destroyed, crossed at Byram's ford and marched up toward Lee & Gordon's mill Next day they countermarched down the creek, and went into battle in the woods after Ector's and Wilson's Brigades had been defeated. By a gallant charge at an opportune moment in the general confusion they ran over King's Brigade of United States regulars and captured nearly one entire battalion, as well as detachments of other troops and Battery H of the Fifth United States Artillery. Lieut.-Col. H. A. Reynolds, of the Thirtieth, field officer of the day, succeeded in removing one of the guns, but the others were left when the brigade was, in its turn, driven back. The regiment was again in line of battle in the evening, when Capt. Samuel Young, Company G, was killed. Next day they marched four miles up and down the line under orders before going into the fight on the Chattanooga road north of General Thomas' main position. Here they were fiercely assailed, particularly by batteries of artillery from front, left and right, and were forced back with heavy loss. Colonel Scales, Captain Gibbs and about twenty men were captured, and Lieutenant-Colonel Reynolds temporarily in command of the Thirty-fourth Regiment, was mortally wounded. "No braver man or better soldier fell upon the field of Chickamauga than this faithful and accomplished officer, whose loss is deeply deplored throughout this command," wrote General Walthall. "In his death the service sustains a heavy loss. Major Johnson, of the Thirtieth, was wounded about the same time, but his wound being slight he did not quit the field." The total casualties of the regiment in the three-day battle were 5 killed, 76 wounded and 38 missing.
Among the prisoners reported by the Union commander were Gen. Dan W. Adams and Col.. J. I. Scales, Thirtieth Mississippi. Among the 2,005 Confederate prisoners there were, according to Federal reports, representatives of thirteen Mississippi regiments.
Major James M. Johnson commanded the regiment in the battle of Lookout Mountain November 24, 1863. Under orders from General Walthall to support the picket line, they were under arms an hour before day. The firing on the picket line became general about nine in the morning, and Companies I and C, under Lieut. W. T. Loggins, of C, were sent forward, soon after which, as the picket line on the left gave way, the whole remainder of the regiment deployed as skirmishers to support it. But, though they checked the Federal advance at first, the weakness of their line was soon seen and they were brushed to the rear, though many officers and men clung to their posts in the rocks until surrounded and captured. The command could not be rallied until after it was driven past the Craven house, after a fight of about three hours. Later the remnant of the regiment advanced to the line below the cliff in support of Pettus' Brigade, and aided in holding the enemy in check until after dark, when the brigade was moved to McFarland's Spring. Next day they marched three or four miles to the right of the line on Missionary Ridge, where they were not directly attacked, but late in the evening, under the command of Colonel Brantley, behaved with coolness in resisting the Federal advance after the line had been broken to their left. The casualties on Lookout Mountain were 7 wounded and 13 officers and 129 men missing, many of the latter undoubtedly killed and wounded.
In January, 1864, Lieut.-Col. James M. Johnson was in command of the Twenty-ninth, Thirtieth and Twenty-fourth Regiments, in winter quarters near Dalton.
In the Atlanta campaign Walthall's Brigade was in Hindman's Division, commanded by Gens. John C. Brown and Patton Anderson, Hood's Corps, commanded after July 27 by Lieut.-Gen. Stephen D. Lee. After Walthall was promoted to command of a division of Stewart's Corps, Colonel Benton commanded the brigade until he died, after which Colonel Brantley was the Brigadier-General. The Thirtieth was consolidated with the Twenty-ninth throughout the campaign. Colonel Brantley commanded them when they left camp at Dalton May 7 to go into line at Alt's Gap, and at the battle of Resaca, May 14-15, when the two regiments, except three companies in the trenches, were placed behind the battalion of artillery on the hill which they defended. Here they were exposed to the fire of twenty-four Federal cannon. In front the Federals assaulted with great determination. Three times Brantley was required to sally out and drive them from a lodgment obtained near the Confederate batteries. The battle raged through the 15th, when, Brantley said, "the artillery firing was the heaviest I have known during the war." Lieut.-Col. J. M. Johnson was wounded on the first day, Major J. K. Allen on the second. Adjutant Powell was specially commended for gallantry. The casualties of the Thirtieth were 10 killed and 29 wounded. At Cassville, May 19, the regiment was under fire of artillery and had 1 killed and 1 wounded. They were not seriously engaged, though skirmishing was constant and heavy during the operations of the New Hope Church and Kenesaw lines. July 28, on the Lickskillet road, the regiment joined in the attack on the Federal lines, losing (with the Twenty-ninth) 6 killed, 19 wounded, 6 missing. The total effective of the two regiments was 277. Lieut.-Col. James B. Morgan (Twenty-ninth) was in command at the close of the campaign. The last battle was at Jonesboro, August 31, when the brigade lost heavily in an attack upon the Federal line. Sergeant-Major H. L. Smith, Lieutenant McMath, Lieutenant Hawkins, were among the severely wounded. Lieut. Simmons was killed; in all 39 killed and wounded.
Brantley's Brigade shared the operations of Lee's Corps during the October, 1864, campaign against the Chattanooga and Atlanta Railroad, the investment of Resaca and the holding of Snake Creek Gap against Sherman's army while Hood retreated behind the mountains. Brantley's men were engaged in sharp skirmishing at the gap October 15. Thence they moved to Gadsden, Ala., and crossed the Tennessee River on the last days of October. The division was then commanded by Gen. Edward Johnson. They encountered Schofield's troops at Columbia, and on the 29th were taken by General Hood to aid in the intended rear attack at Spring Hill. Schofield fell back to Franklin, on the Harpeth River, and Hood ordered an assault on the works. November 30 Brantly's Brigade suffered more than any other in the terrible night battle along the Federal parapets, losing 76 killed, 140 wounded, 21 missing. As Brantley's Brigade approached the works in the darkness the men were met with a deadly volley that seemed to sweep away half their numbers, but they responded gallantly to the order to charge, and entered the ditch just outside the parapet, which for hours they struggled to gain. Union and Confederate troops, Mississippians, Ohioans, Illinoisans, Indianians, fought hand to hand in the dark for possession of the parapets and their flags. Part of a Michigan regiment came out to the ditch and opened a deadly fire along its length. Lieut.-Col. J. M. Johnson, commanding the regiment, was wounded and Major J. K. Allen was missing. Company E was almost entirely destroyed (see Twenty-ninth Regiment sketch). The Federal troops were concentrated at Nashville, under General Thomas, and Brantley's Brigade was encamped in Hood's line about that city, December 2-15. December 15 Thomas attacked and Brantley's Brigade was sent to the support of Stewart's Corps, which gave way. Next day, the 16th, they were moved to the right of Lee's Corps and repulsed the Federal attack. But the left gave way, General Johnson was among the captured, and Lee's Corps yielded to the common fate. The army crossed the Tennessee December 26 and moved to Tupelo, Miss., for winter quarters.
The brigade was furloughed until February 12, 1865. Under orders for the Carolinas 152 of the brigade assembled at Meridian February 14. They started east on the 18th and were detained some time at Montgomery by the Mobile campaign. In March they proceeded to Augusta and thence to North Carolina. April 3 the aggregate present of the brigade was 283. Organization of the army near Smithfield, N. C., March 31, 1865, Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth Regiments consolidated under the command of Capt. R. W. Williamson.
April 9 Brantley's Brigade was consolidated in the Twenty-fourth Regiment, Col. R. W. Williamson commanding. This regiment, with the Twenty-second Alabama, consolidated from Deas' Brigade, and the Thirty-seventh Alabama and Fifty-eighth North Carolina, representing consolidated fragments of other brigades, constituted the brigade of
Gen. W. F. Brantly, in D. H. Hill's Division of S. D. Lee's Corps. The army was surrendered April 26, 1865, and paroled at Greensboro.
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