1st Mississippi Cavalry

(Adams’/Wood’s)

 

(from Dunbar Rowland’s "Military History of Mississippi, 1803-1898"; company listing courtesy of H. Grady Howell’s "For Dixie Land, I’ll Take My Stand’)

 

Company A -- Tensas Cavalry (raised in LA)

Company B -- DeSoto Light Dragoons (raised in DeSoto County, MS)

Company C -- [no name/county of origin information specified]

Company D -- Partisan Ranger Company, aka A.P. Hill’s Partisans (raised in Leake & Madison Counties, MS)

Company E -- Ruffin Rangers (county of origin not specified)

Company F -- [no name/county of origin information specified]

Company G -- Warren Dragoons, aka Raum’s Cavalry (raised in Warren County, MS)

Company H -- Lowndes Rangers (raised in Lowndes County, MS)

Company I -- Warren and Claiborne Guards, aka Warren and Claiborne Cavalry (raised in Warren & Claiborne Counties, MS) [also listed as Co. F]

Company K -- Anding Hussars (raised in Yazoo County, MS)

Company L -- Capt. Barnes’ Company (county of origin not specified)

Company M -- McKie Cavalry (raised in Madison County, MS)

Capt. Montgomery’s Company of Scouts, aka Mississippi Scouts [no letter designation] (raised in Hinds County, MS)

 

Originally called First Mississippi Cavalry. Wood's Regiment after the promotion of Adams. Colonels -- Wirt Adams, promoted Brigadier-General September 25, 1863; Robert C. Wood, Jr. Lieutenant-Colonels -- Robert C. Wood, Jr., Thomas Lewers, Stephen B. Cleaveland. Majors -- James Hagan, transferred to Alabama Artillery; Isaac F.

Harrison, Thomas Lewers, Stephen B. Cleaveland, A. Muldrow. Surgeon -- J. H. Wilson.

Assistant Surgeon -- Solomon C. Martin. Adjutant -- Allen T. Bowie, promoted Adjutant of Adams' Division. Companies -- Lewers, Muldrow, Barnes, Lachote, Yerger, Haynes,

Mississippi; Harrison, Cage, Louisiana; Cleaveland, Bowie, Alabama. Captain -- Earl, 1862.

This famous regiment was organized by William Wirt Adams, of Jackson. He had been Adjutant of Burleson's Regiment in Texas in 1839, commissioner to Louisiana in January, 1861, and had declined the Postmaster-Generalship in President Davis' cabinet. Colonel Adams was at New Orleans when he received a letter from Van Dorn, April 18, 1861, announcing the capture of the "Star of the West," at Galveston. He was still there, planning for the defense of the city, when he wrote to the President June 6, proposing to raise an independent regiment of mounted riflemen. Mr. Davis replied that the proposition was in all respects acceptable, except that the command could not be independent. When Colonel Adams announced this permission to raise a "Regiment of Mounted Men for active operation and constant movement," to serve during the war, he was offered eight companies from Mississippi, five from Alabama and two from Louisiana. August 14, 1861, General Hardee wrote that he had learned that a regiment of horse from Mississippi, under Wirt Adams, was ordered to join him, September 18, he wrote Colonel Adams at Jackson to join him in Kentucky.

The regiment was ordered to Columbus, Ky., in September, and in October to the headquarters of Gen. A. S. Johnston at Bowling Green. They were on outpost duty during the winter. The Secretary of War ordered, December 24, 1861: "The designation of the First Regiment Mississippi Cavalry will hereafter be the Wirt Adams Regiment of Cavalry." The regiment was reported 778 present and absent in December. Capt. Paul Ravesies, commanding scouts, reported a scout from Barren River to Green River, November 23. With 45 men Capt. I. F. Harrison scouted from Bowling Green to Russelville December 8. Captain Pope had engaged the enemy in that vicinity the day before. Lieut-Colonel R. C. Wood was then in command of the regiment. Attached to Hardee's Division of the army in Kentucky, January, 1862. The four extra companies detached and the regiment included six Mississippi, two Alabama, and two Louisiana regiments.

The regiment was the rear guard of the retreat from Kentucky, and Adams, Forrest and Wharton were the cavalry commanders of Johnston's army at the reorganization after the fall of Fort Donelson.

At the battle of Shiloh, April 6, 1862, Adams' Regiment was stationed upon the extreme right, near Greer's ford of the Tennessee River, whence they accompanied the infantry line into battle. After the battle they remained in observation of the Federal army, and were in action with a reconnaissance April 8. Captain Harrison made a brilliant charge and brought off sixty prisoners.

In April and May they participated in a raid upon the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad, with other cavalry commands, and were overtaken at Lebanon by a body of Federal cavalry. Lieut.-Col. Wood, with sixty-five officers and men, fortified in the Odd Fellows' hall and made a spirited resistance until compelled to surrender by a threat to burn the building.

According to report of April 28, attached to cavalry brigade of Gen. W. N. R. Beall, with the regiments of Forrest and others, Adams' Regiment having twelve companies and twenty-four officers, aggregate present and absent, 1,047. Adams inspected the front for General Bragg May 2. During the siege of Corinth the Tensas company was distinguished by the capture of forty prisoners in a gallant fight. Captain Muldrow and Lieut. Yerger, with their companies, routed a large body of the Federal cavalry, Lieutenants Yerger and Ewing winning particular distinction.

Captain Yerger's company on duty near Smith's bridge June 1. Regiment on outpost duty on Booneville and Baldwyn road early in June, at Saltillo June 10, when Chalmers was given command of all cavalry. June, detachment of regiment with cavalry under Colonel Lay, ordered to pursue enemy from Booneville.

The companies of Captains Cage and Cochrane, of Slemons' and Adams' commands, were in a skirmish near Baldwyn, June 14, 1862. July 3, 1862, Captain Roddey, with a company of the First Mississippi, and two of the Second Alabama, attacked two companies of the First Ohio Cavalry near Russellville, Ala., some casualties on both sides. (Federal report.)

The regiment, under Colonel Adams, had a brilliant part in the defeat of Col. Phil. Sheridan's command near Booneville, July 1, 1864. Colonel Adams, in his report, particularly complimented Captains Harrison, Cage, Barnes and Luckett and their men. Captain Yerger's company was in Luckett's squadron. Casualties 4 wounded. The regiment was with Chalmers in an expedition into West Tennessee in July, 1862. August, 1862, assigned to Armstrong's Brigade at Guntown.

Colonel Adams, with two companies under Captain Barnett and Lieutenant Bookter were driven from camp at Marietta, August 19, according to report of Col. A. L. Lee, commanding Kansas cavalry.

Colonel Adams' command was with General Armstrong in the raid between Bolivar and Jackson, Tenn., with engagements near Bolivar, August 30, and at Britton's lane, near Denmark, September 1, where the regiment charged and captured a battery.

This battery, posted on a hill at one end of a narrow lane, the only way of approach, had been unsuccessfully attacked by McCulloch, Jackson and Pinson, when Adams' Regiment was ordered to the task. A dashing charge won the guns, which were brought off, but a heavy fire from infantry checked the advance and occasioned considerable loss in the regiment. Among the killed was Lieut. Montgomery of the Tensas cavalry.

In the operations preceding the battle of Inks, two squadrons of Adams'. Cavalry, with Rogers' sharpshooters drove in the Federal skirmish line. On September 17 Adams and Slemons planned and executed a daring and successful ambuscade within one and one-half miles of Burnsville, occupied by a large Federal force, General Grant's headquarters, capturing and destroying a train of cars and inflicting losses upon the Federal cavalry. When General Price escaped from Iuka, the cavalry covered the rear. Adams' and Slemons' Regiments were under Colonel Adams' command during the Corinth campaign of October, and rendered effective service. Their brilliant charge at the Hatchie bridge October 4, probably kept that avenue open for VanDorn's retreat next day. Very few of the two regiments were with Adams at the time. He regarded it as the most remarkable feat in the history of his regiment.

After the Corinth campaign Adams' Regiment was posted along the Mississippi River, in Washington County, guarding the plantations and advising the commander at Vicksburg through a line of couriers, of the Federal movements on the river. Haynes' company was attached to S. D. Lee's Brigade at Vicksburg and Chickasaw Bayou. February, 1863, Gen. Fred Steele's Division ordered to embark on steamboats for expedition to Greenville, advance to Green Creek and try to capture Wirt Adams and his regiment. "Greenville has been a favorite point from which to assail our passing boats," wrote General Sherman. A detachment under Capt. James Lewers served under Col. S. W. Ferguson against this expedition, February 19-23. The regiment was ordered to Vicksburg, and stationed in support of Bowen at Warrenton and Grand Gulf. Colonel Adams was near at hand at the time of the capture of the Federal ironclad Indianola by the Webb and Queen of the West, February 24, after a chase from Natchez to New Carthage. In the confusion of the captors they neglected to observe that the officers of the Indianola had opened the plug holes so that the vessel scuttled and lodged in front of the Joseph Davis plantation, a wreck, from which nothing was saved by the captors but the wine and liquor stores. Colonel Adams sent Lieut.-Col. Wood with one squadron across the Big Black to attempt the rescue of some guns, in which he would be aided by Maj. Isaac F. Harrison's command on the Louisiana side.

Major Isaac F. Harrison (and a portion of Bowen's Brigade, posted on the Louisiana side of the river) informed General Bowen as early as April 20 that Grant intended to pass below Vicksburg and make a lodgment near Grand Gulf. April 27, General Pemberton, at Jackson, ordered Bowen to collect Wirt Adams' Cavalry and send them out to meet Grierson's expedition, reported at Hazlehurst. Adams was ordered to take command of cavalry south of Jackson.

Colonel Grierson reported of the engagement at Union Church, April 28, that he was moving westward from Gallatin, and had halted to feed at 2 P. M., at the Snyder plantation, when "our pickets were driven in by a considerable force. I immediately moved out upon them, skirmished with and drove them through the town, wounding and capturing a number. It proved to be a part of Wirt Adams' Cavalry. After driving them off, we held the town and bivouacked for the night." Grierson understood that Adams intended to attack with artillery about daylight, but the appearance in his rear of a detachment which had been sent to Bahala and returned at an early hour in the morning, caused Adams to move toward Port Gibson. That day (29th) Grierson made a feint toward Fayette, but moved to Brookhaven, and "hearing nothing more of our forces at Grand Gulf, I concluded to make for Baton Rouge. Grant did not land at Bruinsburg until the night of the 30th.''

The skirmish at Union Church was fought by three companies of the regiment, about 1oo strong, under command of Capt. S. B. Cleveland, who were marching from Natchez to meet Colonel Adams, while he was making a forced march of twenty miles from Port Hudson with two companies and two mountain pieces. He brought the five companies together, intending to attack, but at eight in the morning found Grierson had moved toward Brookhaven, whereupon he moved to Fayette, where he was joined by five companies, to intercept an advance on Natchez, and from there pursued Grierson to a point near Greensburg. He reported, May 5, from near Fayette, that though he marched over fifty miles a day, moving day and night, on account of the distance he had to move eastward and Grierson's use of the most skillful guides and all the horses he could find, "I found it impossible, to my great mortification and regret, to overhaul them." Adams added, ' 'I shall move today against the enemy's line of communication from the Mississippi River to Port Gibson." He added that it was the statement of Lieut.-Col. Blackburn, of an Illinois Regiment, wounded at the Tickfaw and left with his Surgeon and Adjutant, that Grierson’s object had been "to take Natchez and connect above with Grant's army, and that it had been defeated by the check they received at Union Church and the reports they received of my strength in their front." Adams returned to Bayou Pierre the same day that General Bowen determined to withdraw from the bridge and was ordered to follow the infantry to Edwards. Hearing that Federal cavalry were in pursuit of our wagon train Adams sent half his command, under Major W. A. Rorer, to protect it. Gregor's squadron captured the picket at Bruinsburg.

The first resistance which Sherman's Corps encountered in the march from Grand Gulf to Jackson was on the morning of May 12, at Fourteen Mile Creek. The Fourth Iowa Cavalry, in advance, was fired upon and one man killed and the horse of Major Winslow shot under him. Sherman said in his report: "Lieutenant-Colonel Swan dismounted the men, armed with carbines (about 100) and began to skirmish with the enemy, which afterward proved to be Wirt Adams' Cavalry, but the bushes were so dense that nothing could be seen but the puffs of smoke from their guns. The bridge was also burning. This affair delayed us about three hours, when we crossed over just in time to see the enemy’s cavalry disappear over the hill." Yerger's squadron, Companies K and M, formed the advance guard of General Gregg, in the battle at Raymond, May 12. A detachment of Yerger's squadron went into Jackson May 16, just as the Federals were leaving. A Colonel and three privates were victims of their close pursuit and they captured over a hundred privates and non-commissioned officers.

Colonel Adams was in command of cavalry at the battle of Baker's Creek, May 16, 1863. Part of regiment was the advance guard in the march to the field and one company brought up the rear. According to Pemberton's report Adams kept him well informed of the Federal movements which brought on the battle. At the close of the battle he joined the forces under General Johnston. General Cockrell reported that the battle of Baker's Creek began about seven in the morning of May 16, with a brisk cannonade between Adams' Cavalry and the enemy, about one mile in front of his brigade, on the road toward Raymond. General Osterhaus, who advanced on the road branching off from the Raymond-Bolton road towards Edwards, reported that on the evening of the 15th he bivouacked on the same ground the Confederate cavalry had just left, and his videttes reported the enemy near at hand, soon after which a large body of mounted infantry appeared and pressed into his line of infantry pickets -- evidently a reconnaissance -- which brought the Forty-second Ohio into line of battle before night.

When Pemberton retreated across the Big Black from the battle of Baker's Creek and abandoned his position on the Yazoo River he expected Colonel Adams to operate west of the Big Black and interfere with the line of supplies which Grant established to the Yazoo at Haynes' Bluff, but Adams' force was entirely inadequate for such operations, as Pemberton admitted in his final report. Johnston's army did not seriously attempt it. Instead Grant's expeditions overran the Yazoo Valley, but at Bear Creek and Mechanicsburg Adams' men severely punished the raiding parties.

June 2, Adams' was the only Confederate force west of Big Black. Regiment with John Adams' command in Yazoo Valley.

June 8, Johnston orders Adams to direct Wirt Adams to join Jackson's Cavalry Division for duty along the Big Black. June 9, assigned to Crosby's Brigade.

June 22, 1863, Lieut.-Col. R. C. Wood, with Adams' Regiment, under Capt. S. B. Cleveland, and Starke's Regiment, under Major McBee, attacked at Jones' plantation a detachment of the Fourth Iowa Cavalry, with one howitzer, under Major Parkell, which had been sent to blockade the road west from Birdsong's ferry on the Big Black. The howitzer was planted at the head of a narrow lane, which was strongly fenced on each side, and the Confederate troopers charged for it while a portion of the command, dismounted, engaged the dismounted Federals in line. "The charge," said Wood, "was gallantly led by Captain Cleveland, commanding Adams' Cavalry, and Captain M. B. Bowie, of the same regiment, whose squadron was in advance. Not being able to develop any front, and the fire being very severe, it required the greatest efforts on the part of these officers to gain ground. Officers and men repeatedly charged up to within easy pistol range of the gun, but were forced back by canister-shot and small arms; not, however, once leaving the lane." Finally, taking advantage of an attempt to move the gun, a charge was made which was successful, and Parkell abandoned his gun in the hasty retreat. The casualties in the two regiments were 5 killed, 16 wounded, 1 missing, and forty horses killed. Among the seriously wounded was Capt. W. S. Yerger, who fell while gallantly leading his company. Captain Cleveland was commended for gallantry by Colonel Wood. Parkell's losses in this engagement were 8 killed, 16 wounded and 33 missing.

June 25, under Lieut.-Col. Wood, on the extreme left of Jackson's line, to guard the country between Baldwin's Ferry and Grand Gulf. July 5, Gen. D. W. Adams, commanding a brigade of Breckenridge's Division, near Edwards, reported: "I find my brother's (Wirt Adams') regiment on my front about one mile distant." The regiment, with Jackson's Division, was rear guard in the retreat to Jackson, and was in constant service during the siege.

In general orders, General Jackson mentioned that "Sergeant Barlow and seventeen privates of Company M, Col. Wirt Adams' Regiment of cavalry, on July 11 attacked and destroyed, near Clinton, Miss., a Federal train of thirteen wagons, capturing and bringing off forty-one prisoners, including two commissioned officers, forty-one mules, and mortally wounding a Quartermaster."

After the evacuation of Jackson, General Jackson reported from Brandon, July 18: "Enemy sent division of infantry to Canton yesterday to intercept my command. Skirmished with them for four hours near Canton." The prisoner's captured, 100 in number, Jackson paroled and sent to Jackson as there were no rations. The horses had not been fed for two days and not a particle of forage could be found within eight miles. Wagons with cooking utensils and three days' rations sent back on Brandon road for Adams and Starke, and the Texas Brigade.

August 6 General Sherman wrote: "Some of Wirt Adams' Cavalry are about Jackson, and the rascals ate some of our bread" (the bread distributed to the public). During Sherman's retreat to Vicksburg Adams' men picked up nearly forty prisoners.

Colonel Adams was promoted as Brigadier-General September 25, 1863. Part of his regiment and part of Starke’s, under Lieutenant-Colonel Wood, were engaged in a skirmish at Ingraham's plantation, near Port Gibson, October 10, 1863, with the cavalry expedition that was sent out before McPherson's movement on Canton. Near Brownsville later in the month, the regiment took part in the brilliant operations that compelled McPherson to abandon his expedition. In November the cavalry under Colonel Logan was assigned to Adams' Brigade. Wood was promoted to Colonel and the regiment was afterward entitled Wood's Regiment. They joined Logan's late command, under General Adams, at Union Church, December 2, 1863, and marched to Ellis Cliffs, which they occupied on the 6th, then moving to the river north of Natchez, evading the troops under Gen. W. Q. Gresham.

When Gen. Richard Taylor contemplated an attack on New Orleans, General Adams and his brigade was sent to demonstrate against Port Hudson and obtain information concerning the garrison. He occupied Bayou Sara and skirmished before Port Hudson January 8, 1864, and near Baton Rouge captured Lieutenant Earl, a notorious scout, with fifteen of his men. In January, 1864, Brig.-Gen. Wirt Adams was in command of a brigade, including his regiment under Col. R. C. Wood, Jr., Gordon's Regiment under Maj. J. L. Harris, the Fourth Battalion under Major Stockdale, Dumonteil's Fourteenth Confederate, Griffith's Eleventh Arkansas, Scott's Louisiana Battalion, Akin's Tennessee Battalion and Roberts’' battery. Adams and his brigade had just returned from an expedition in Louisiana, threatening Baton Rouge, and by two days' forced march reached Raymond January 28, when they received orders to watch the crossings of the Big Black River. As soon as McPherson's column of Sherman's army crossed at the railroad bridge, Adams moved with 800 men and a section of King's battery, to meet them, and took position beyond Bolton. There followed the battle of February 4-5. "Near Champion's hill Colonel Wood encountered a dismounted cavalry force, which after a brief skirmish was charged by Captain Muldrow's squadron (Eleventh Regiment), killing and wounding a number and capturing eight prisoners." Later, when the main body of the Federal column advanced, they were held in check for several hours near Bolton, by Wood's Regiment and Stockdale's Battalion, dismounted. "Nothing could surpass the unflinching courage and steadiness of these commands, eliciting at the time the commendation of the Major-General commanding." Being outflanked by an infantry brigade, Adams, under the orders of General Lee, fell back across Baker's Creek bridge, sending Muldrow's squadron and Major H. W. Bridges with Lee's and Jackson's escort companies to hold the flank movement in check, an action in which fell Major Bridges, Lieutenant Wilson and eight men. On the morning of the 5th Adams stubbornly contested the passage of Baker's Creek bridge by McPherson, and then fell back through Clinton, and took position, from which he was outflanked with some skirmishing. General Lee wrote from the field February 4: "Adams’ Brigade has done the fighting and acted gallantly." At the same time Ross' Brigade was fighting at Yazoo City and Stark’s Brigade was meeting Hurlbut's column of Sherman's army. On the 6th General Lee wrote that he had lost about 130 killed and wounded and one piece of artillery. On the 10th: "There is little opportunity to do much with the enemy on the march. He moves in perfect order, with every precaution." The casualties of Adams' Brigade, out of 800 men, were 11 killed, 66 wounded, 148 missing (unofficial).

On the march from Jackson to Meridian, when Adams' Brigade was accompanied by Gen. S. D. Lee, there was but one opportunity to strike effectively, which was at Decatur. Colonel Wood with two squadrons made a dash at the wagon train halted in the suburbs, doing some damage, but being unable to bring off any wagons. General Adams reported his brigade casualties from Champion's Hill to Decatur as 129 killed, wounded

and missing, and 143 horses. The brigade marched to Starkville and thence to Canton, where Sherman's army was then, and attacked the left flank on its march to Vicksburg, February 29 and March 1-2 , capturing 33 horses, 2 wagons and teams and about 60 men. "In these affairs," said Adams, "Major Stockdale, Captain Muldrow and Captain Yerger were the most conspicuous and gallant participants." He gave honorable mention to his staff: Capts. F. W. Keyes and A. T. Bowie, and Lieuts George Scott and George Yerger.

Gen. S. D. Lee, in command of all the Confederate cavalry, reported the losses of this campaign at 231 killed and wounded and 48 missing. The casualties of the Union troops were 113 killed, 385 wounded, 414 missing. General Lee gave honorable mention to members of his staff: Adjutant-General William Booth, Lieuts. J. B. McFarland, S. M. Underhill and W. S. Farish, Aides; Maj. G. B. Dyer, Commissary; A. G. Quaite, Quartermaster, and Surgeon D. W. Booth.

March 28, 1864, Brig.-Gen. Wirt Adams transferred from his present command to the command of the Mississippi Brigade (Starke's) of Jackson's Division, by order of Gen. S. D. Lee. April 4 this order was revoked and General Adams designated as in command of the department in the absence of General Lee. To which change General Adams submitted on condition that his regiment remain with him. General Armstrong commanded the brigade in Georgia.

A squadron of the regiment was with Colonel Griffith, under Adams' command, in the capture of the gunboat Petrel in the vicinity of Yazoo City, April 22, 1864, by which eight Dahlgren guns were obtained for the navy. The guns were sent to Mobile. Early in May there were two Federal raids, from Vicksburg and Memphis. General Adams skirmished with McArthur's expedition from Vicksburg, for several days, in the vicinity of Benton. On the 14th Captain Yerger, with 150 men, successfully defended the Central Railroad bridge over the Big Black. As the enemy withdrew from Deasonville Colonel Wood was sent in pursuit as far as Benton.

Return of June 1, Lieut.-Col. Thomas Lewers commanding, in Mabry’s Brigade, Adams' Cavalry. June 30, formed, with Moorman's Battalion, Wood's Brigade of Adams' Cavalry. Inspection report of August, of Gen. Wirt Adams' command: "The officers are disposed to favor partisan service, and, with the exception of Colonel Wood's Regiment, I saw very little discipline in other commands." Wood's Brigade had 727 present, 1,172 enrolled.

Early in July, 1864, Bowie's squadron and Yerger's, Luckett's and Carnaker's companies, with three companies of Moorman's Battalion, attacked at Coleman's cross roads, near Clifton, Jefferson County, an expedition from Natchez and Rodney, accompanied by General Ellet of the Marine cavalry. The enemy was routed with heavy loss, a nephew of General Ellet being among the killed. Wood was in command of the brigade.

About the same time General Slocum's expedition from Vicksburg crossed the Big Black and moved upon Jackson, the fourth visit to that fated capital. General Adams was in command, but was unable to collect his troops in time to seriously oppose the raid before Jackson was occupied, July 5.

During the period of the Federal expedition which brought on the battle of Harrisburg in Northeast Mississippi, another expedition under Ellet and Karge, brought down by river from Memphis, invaded General Adams' territory from Vicksburg and there were skirmishes at or near Utica July 13, and Port Gibson 14th, and a considerable fight at Grand Gulf 16th. Karge reported that Major Shorey was driven back to camp near Utica, and near Port Gibson twenty-six men were captured from a foraging party of the First New Jersey.

July 25, 1864, Wood's Brigade of Adams' Cavalry included Wood's Regiment, aggregate 551; Moorman's Battalion, aggregate 180; Stubbs' Battalion, aggregate 112; Peyton's Battalion, aggregate 79; section of Ratliff's Battery, 36; total aggregate present 966; effective, total 661.

In September a raiding party out from Natchez reported part of Wood's Regiment on the Homochitto. Later in the month Osband from Vicksburg raided from Haynes' Bluff to Deer Creek, and about October 1 from Bruinsburg to Port Gibson, gathering cattle and destroying property. At Woodville, October 6, a considerable engagement was fought.

Another expedition. under Colonel Osband crossed the Big Black from Vicksburg, and moved toward Yazoo City November 25, 1864, after a reconnaissance had been made toward Jackson. Osband proceeded to Canton and returned to Vicksburg early in December, reporting the destruction of the bridge near Canton and other railroad property and military stores and cotton. At Yazoo City, December 1, finding that Confederate cavalry had taken position on his road to Vicksburg, Osband attacked a battalion of the Second Wisconsin, which had 5 killed, 9 wounded, 25 missing. Osband then crossed the Yazoo and returned to Vicksburg by boat. Colonel Griffith, commanding Adams' Brigade, reported that he followed Osband on the opposite side of the Big Black, and sent two companies, under Capt. William S. Yerger, a company of Wood's Regiment, and an Arkansas company, to prevent the destruction of the railroad bridge, "which the enemy had reached before them, and although set on fire by the enemy, was stoutly defended by some dozen citizens assembled for the occasion, without knowledge of the approach of Confederate forces. The timely arrival of Captain Yerger effected the retreat of the enemy and the easy extinguishment of the flames without material damage to the work. It is worthy of especial mention that a few men living in the vicinity of this bridge rallied for its protection, and fought with skill and courage against the greatest odds and were holding their ground nobly when our troops arrived." The case was the same with the long bridge on the highway to Goodman. Osband reported that Major Cook, Third United States colored cavalry, charged across the railroad bridge and carried the stockade that defended the bridge, and under fire burned a portion of the bridge, while a battalion of the Fifth

Illinois burned the other bridge and destroyed property at Goodman. Griffith was delayed a day in repairing the bridges and Osband hastily retreated to Yazoo City. Following, Griffith went into line of battle at Concord Church, December 1, and attacked the enemy with Wood's Regiment and the Arkansas Regiment, of which the casualties were 1 killed, 5 wounded. Colonel Griffith gave honorable mention to Colonel Wood, Surgeon S. R. Chambers, and William Laughlin of Wood's Regiment, his acting Adjutant.

During Grierson's raid on the Mobile and Ohio Railroad in December, Gen. Wirt Adams attacked Osband's Brigade, about 1,500 strong, accompanying Grierson, near Franklin, January 2, 1865. Osband reported that the main struggle was for the possession of a bridge over a small stream. "The desperate nature of the fighting, the superiority of numbers displayed by General Adams, and a summons from the General commanding to immediately join the column, now fifteen miles to our front and right, induced me to attempt to withdraw my men. Fortunately General Adams concluded to withdraw his men and we mutually separated without further fighting," said Osband. "It was the hardest fought cavalry fight in which the brigade was ever engaged." Osband's loss was 4 killed, 8 wounded, 2 missing. General Adams reported that his fight compelled Osband to abandon a second attempt to destroy the railroad bridge near Canton. Colonel Wood began the fight with a squadron of his regiment, going in at a gallop, soon supported by the remainder of the regiment and Griffith's Brigade and Gober's Battalion. "On coming up I found that Colonel Wood had been driven back a short distance by overwhelming numbers. When his regiment came up repeated charges and counter charges were made, his men contesting the ground with great gallantry and resolution." Adams' loss was 7 killed, 15 wounded.

In the latter part of March, 1865, General Adams marched his brigade, including Wood's Regiment, from Jackson to Macon and West Point, to join General Forrest, and was ordered to meet Croxton's Brigade of the Federal expedition under General Wilson. Adams marched with his command from Columbus to Pickensville, April 5, and on the 6th attacked the rear of Croxton's column, causing it to turn from the Eutaw road toward Tuscaloosa. Adams pursued through the day but could not force Croxton to turn and give battle until about dark, when the Federal cavalry halted in a very favorable position. They were soon driven by a gallant charge of Wood's Regiment, in which Captain Luckett fell, leading his squadron. Thence Croxton retreated on the gallop toward Tuscaloosa. The roads were almost impassable. Adams lost 9 killed and 25 wounded. The Federal loss he estimated at 75 killed and captured, and he took all the ambulances and personal baggage of General Croxton.

Colonel Moorman wrote from Canton May 4: "Should the war cease now you would have the honor of having won the last victory on Confederate soil and in the Confederate cause."

This was the last battle of regular troops, at least. The fights at West Point, Ala., April 16, and near Talladega, April 23, were by the reserves.

In camp near Gainesville, Ala., May 6, the regiment adopted resolutions of compliment to General Adams. Lieut.-Col. S. B. Cleaveland was chairman, Lieut. John E, Sugg, Company E; Sergt.-Maj. William Laughlin and John E. Barlow, color bearer, were secretaries. The committee on resolutions was Lieut. C. F. Enzury, A; Lieut, A. Puryear, B; Lieut. Private John Creight, D; Sergt. Robert W. Caruthers, E; Sergt. O. S. Smith, F; Lieut. J. M. Love, G; Capt. M. B. Bowie, H; Corpl. J. Creighton, I; Sergt. J. O. Mobley, K; Sergt. William Gibson, L; Sergt. William Evans, M; Sergt. J. M. Allen and Capt. John Y. Kilpatrick, I. Major Muldrow, Dr. J. M. Allen and Captain Smith of Company D were other officers present.

The regiment was "surrendered near Ramsey Station, Sumter County, Ala., May 4, 1865,' according to one account. General Adams' parole is dated Gainesville, Ala., May 12, 1865.

 

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