10th Mississippi Infantry
(from Dunbar Rowlands "Military History of Mississippi, 1803-1898"; company listing courtesy of H. Grady Howells "For Dixie Land, Ill Take My Stand)
COMPANIES COMPRISING THE ORIGINAL 10TH ["OLD"] MS INFANTRY:
Company A -- Mississippi Rifles (raised in Hinds County, MS)
Company B -- Ben Bullard Rifles (raised in Itawamba County, MS)
Company C -- Port Gibson Riflemen, aka Port Gibson Rifles (raised in Claiborne County, MS)
Company D -- Lowndes Southrons (raised in Lowndes County, MS)
Company E -- Southern Avengers, aka Avengers (raised in Lowndes County, MS)
Company F -- Hill City Cadets (raised in Warren County, MS)
Company G -- Rankin Rifles (raised in Rankin County, MS)
Company H -- Bahala Rifles (raised in Copiah County, MS)
Company I -- Madison Rifles (raised in Madison County, MS)
Company K -- Yazoo Minute Rifles (raised in Yazoo County, MS)
COMPANIES COMPRISING THE "NEW" 10TH MS INFANTRY:
Company A -- Horn Lake Volunteers [formerly Co. E, 9th MS Infantry] (raised in DeSoto County, MS)
Company B -- Natchez Southrons [also listed as Co. C] (raised in Adams County, MS)
Company C -- Ben Bullard Rifles [also listed as Co. D] (raised in Itawamba County, MS)
Company D -- Mississippi Rifles [also listed as Co. G] (raised in Hinds County, MS)
Company E -- Lowndes Southrons (raised in Lowndes County, MS)
Company F -- Port Gibson Rifleman [also listed as Co. H] (raised in Claiborne County, MS)
Company G -- Fulton Guards [also listed as Co. B] (raised in Itawamba County, MS)
Company H -- Rankin Rifles [also listed as Co. A] (raised in Rankin County, MS)
Company I -- Bahala Rifles (raised in Copiah County, MS)
Company K -- Beauregard Relief (raised in Tippah County, MS)
Company L -- Capt. Finleys Company [see Co. C] (county of origin not specified)
Company M -- Capt. Dobsons Company [see Co. D] (county of origin not specified)
Company N -- Capt. Bells Company [see Co. E] (county of origin not specified)
Company O -- Capt. Inges Company [see Co. B] (county of origin not specified)
Company P -- Capt. Betts Company [see Co. G] (county of origin not specified)
Colonels -- Seaburne M. Phillips, died at Pensacola; Robert A. Smith, killed at Munfordville; James Barr, Jr., died in Georgia; James M. Walker, resigned. Lieutenant- Colonels -- Joseph R. Davis, transferred; James G. Bullard, killed at Munfordville; James Barr, Jr., promoted; James M. Walker, promoted; George B. Myers. Majors -- Edward H. Gregory, James Barr, Jr., James M. Dotson. Surgeons -- W. F. Camp, L. M. Wasson, died at Chattanooga, 1863, Assistant Surgeons -- W. L. Lipscomb, J. R. Barnett, B. R. Schaeffer. Adjutants -- William G. Paxton, Thomas H. Dickson, E. Turner Sykes,
promoted Captain and Adjutant, Walthall's Brigade; William H. French. Quartermasters -- Daniel Morrison, George Whitfield. Commissaries -- Thomas Puckett, Daniel Morrison. Bandmaster -- P. Rivinac.
Aggregate original enrollment, 841 officers and men.
The regiment was reorganized at Corinth, March 15, 1862, and reenlisted for two years.
The companies that responded to the first call, March 1, 1861, for troops to serve twelve months at Pensacola, began to assemble at Mobile in that month, marched to Pensacola April 10-12, and encamped near Fort Barrancas, opposite Fort Pickens and Santa Rosa Island, held by Union troops. Twenty Mississippi companies having arrived, the Ninth and Tenth Regiments were organized, these numbers being assigned to follow the eight regiments in the State army. The Ninth and Tenth, however, were the first regiments organized and the first in the service of the Confederate States.
General Bragg announced by order of April 17, 1861, that the Ninth and Tenth Regiments had been received (on 14th) in the service of the Confederate States. They were put under the brigade command of Colonel Chalmers. Lieutenant-Colonel J. R. Davis was in command at Fort McRee until May 20, when he was ordered to report at Montgomery and his place was taken by Major Gregory. Immediately after this Colonel Phillips died, and on May 28 the regiment elected Captain Robert A. Smith, of Jackson, Colonel. He was then twenty-five years of age. After some time on the staff of President Davis, Lieut-Col. Davis was promoted as Brigadier-General in the Army of Northern Virginia.
The companies of Captains Barr, Fearn, Wade, Gibbes, Lipscomb, A, D, E, H and I, were assigned to duty as the garrison of Fort McRee, the works nearest Fort Pickens, where they were busied in fortification work, as well as supporting the gunners during the bombardments, for four months.
A detachment from the Tenth formed part of the First Battalion of Gen. R. H. Anderson's expedition from Pensacola to Santa Rosa Island, October 9, 1861, and Surgeon Lipscomb was in the medical staff. Under the command of Colonel Chalmers the men marched several miles in the sand along the north beach and then into the middle of the Island, where they took part in the burning of the camp of the New York Zouaves. Among the wounded was Sergeant James P. Barksdale, Company G.
Orders for transfer to the interior arrived February 23, when the regiment was in the confusion of re-enlistment and furlough. The command moved to Montgomery on the 27th, to Chattanooga by way of Atlanta early in March, thence to Eastport, Ala., to meet an anticipated advance of gunboats, and reached Corinth March 10, where the regiment was reorganized. It was assigned, March 9, to the brigade of Gen. J. R. Chalmers, the "High Pressure Brigade," composed of the Seventh and Ninth and Tenth Regiments, Baskerville's cavalry and the Vaiden battery, the Fifth Regiment being added before the battle of Shiloh. The brigade was in Withers' Division of Bragg's Corps.
They moved April 1, as the advance force of Johnston's army, to Monterey, Tenn., whence they advanced on April 4 and 5 toward Grant's army. The Tenth led the brigade, and when the battle began, April 6, after the exchange of a few volleys, the Tenth, about 360 strong, led by its gallant Colonel, dashed up the hill in front and drove back the Eighteenth Wisconsin Regiment, of Prentiss' Division. Supported by the Ninth and Seventh, the three Mississippi regiments pushed back the whole Federal line in their front, through the camps and a half mile beyond. That day the regiment was in six encounters with the Federal forces, finally aiding in the capture of Prentiss' Division. "Col. R, A. Smith was particularly distinguished for his bold daring and his clarion voice could be heard above the din of battle cheering on his men," said Chalmers, who also gave honorable mention to James Barr and Lieut. M. M. Shelley, volunteer aides. Among the wounded were Lieutenants Ball and Conklin, Company G, The regiment fought with distinction also through the second day of the battle, retired with the brigade in the afternoon, and next day marched back to Corinth.
Advancing again to Monterey April 10 the regiment had a skirmish at Mickey's Ridge, with a loss of 15 wounded and 25 captured. During the advance of the Federal army the regiment skirmished on the Farmington road April 20 and on the Purdy road April 26 and 30, and May 1 to 29 served on the fortified line around Corinth. For some time in May Colonel Smith was in command of First Brigade, Anderson's Division. Part of the regiment was in the action on the Monterey road May 29, under Col. Joseph Wheeler. The evacuation was made that night. The regiment camped at Clear Creek through the most of June, recruited at Tupelo, moved to Ripley with Wirt Adams July 4, July 29 left Saltillo for Mobile, arrived at Chattanooga August 6, left Tyner's Station August 19 for Kentucky, arriving at Cave City, September 12, taking possession of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. General Bragg wrote in his campaign report that while resting his jaded army at Glasgow, "I learned that the commander of my outpost brigade at Cave City had advanced upon and assailed the enemy's fortified position at Munfordville and after a gallant fight against largely superior numbers had been repulsed with considerable loss." This attack was made by General Chalmers with his brigade, September 14, 1862, hoping to secure the surrender of Colonel Wilder's command of 4,000 Indiana and Kentucky troops at the fortified post called Fort Craig. In the attack the 'Tenth, under command of Colonel Smith, was ordered to advance on the works along the river, and Blythe's Regiment was sent to their support. In the attack of the Tenth Colonel Smith was mortally wounded, Lieut.-Col. Bullard was killed, and the command devolved on Captain J. M. Walker. Captain James L. Finley made the report for the regiment, and mentioned the gallantry of George Fugel, Color Sergeant, and B. F. Bonds and R. B, Tatum, Color Guards. The casualties of the regiment were the greatest of the brigade -- 13 killed and 95 wounded. General Bragg noted on Chalmers' report, "The loss of the gallant and admired Colonel Smith, with the other valuable officers and men of this distinguished brigade, will be mourned by their comrades and the country." On the 17th, after Wilder had surrendered to Bragg's entire army, the brigade was, as a mark of honor, ordered to occupy the works.
Colonel Smith, who died about the time of the capture, was buried at Jackson, Miss.; Lieutenant-Colonel Bullard was buried with his men in one long trench on the field of battle. A monument to Colonel Smith was erected at Jackson in 1868, and another monument at Rowlett's Station, near the battlefield, by his father, James Smith, of Glasgow, Scotland.
The brigade advanced toward Louisville and was on the march in Kentucky through September. They were at Danville and Harrodsburg on October 8, during the battle of Perryville, skirmished at Lawrenceburg on the retreat, crossed Cumberland Gap October 20, reached Knoxville on 31st, and from Chattanooga advanced to Murfreesboro in November.
At the battle of Murfreesboro, beginning December 31, 1862, Chalmers' Brigade was at the extreme right of Polk's Corps, Chalmers' right flank rested on the river. Said General Polk: "This brigade, owing to its position in the line, was called on to encounter a measure of personal suffering from exposure beyond that of any other in my corps. The part of the line it occupied lay across an open field in full view of the enemy, and in range of his field guns. It had thrown up a slight rifle pit, behind which it was placed, and to escape observation it was necessary for it to lie down and abstain from building fires. In this position it remained awaiting the opening of the battle for more than forty-eight hours, wet with rain and chilled with cold; added to this the enemy's shot and shell were constantly passing over it. Not a murmur of discontent was heard to escape those who composed it. They exhibited the highest capacity of endurance and firmness in the most discouraging circumstances." As Chalmers was the pivot of Polk's swinging attack, December 31, he was not ordered forward until 11 o'clock. The line in front was held by Palmer's Division, Hazen's, Cruft's and Grose's Brigades, and though the brigade charged in fine style, it was driven back after General Chalmers fell wounded. "The regiments of Chalmers' Brigade, having been separated after he fell," said Polk, "moved forward and attached themselves to other commands, fighting with them with gallantly as opportunity offered." Colonel Blake, Ninth Indiana, reporting the fight at the burnt house, said one regiment of the gray charged his line at double quick until they were checked by the fire poured upon them, when they lay down in a cotton field, somewhat protected by the furrows, and returned the fire. "Their colors had been struck down three times during their advance and every field officer of the regiment was killed." He identified the regiment as the "Sixteenth Louisiana, of General Chalmers' Brigade, composed of the Ninth and Tenth Mississippi and Sixteenth Louisiana." Part of Chalmers' Brigade did go into action with D. W. Adams' Brigade, to which the Sixteenth Louisiana belonged, but the main body fought as a brigade, under command of Colonel White, on January 1, 2 and 3, at the Round Forest.
The casualties of the Tenth were 8 killed, including Lieuts. J. F. Moseley and D. W. Owen, 70 wounded and 6 missing.
They fell back to Shelbyville and Tullahoma in January and remained in that line until July, 1863, when they crossed the Tennessee River, marched over Lookout Mountain and went in camp near Chattanooga. July 13 to August 23, at Bridgeport, Ala., on picket duty; withdrawn as Rosecrans advanced.
The brigade retreated from Chattanooga September 8, with Bragg's army, and encamped at Lee & Gordon's mill until the morning of the 10th, when they moved with Hindman's Division under orders to attack one of the Federal columns coming through the mountains into McLemore's cove. This resulted in some exhausting service with no practical results, and the brigade marched back to Lafayette, whence, by a night march, they reached Chickamauga Creek on the 18th, crossed next day, and went into battle on Sunday, September 20, 1863. They attacked Sheridans Division after Deas' Alabamians had been checked at the second line, and made a brilliant and successful charge that put Sheridan to rout. The Tenth attacked a line on the ridge, with a battery of three pieces in front of the center, of the regiment. Lieutenant-Colonel Barr, commanding, reported that his men nobly responded to orders, "driving the foe from their position and shooting down the artillerists at their guns (the last one being discharged when my men were within twenty paces of it), completely routing them. Here it was my color sergeant, Martin V. Denham, was killed while bravely carrying the standard well up to the front." After a pursuit of a mile or so, the regiment was recalled and with the brigade sent to the attack upon Granger's Union command, which had just come upon the field. In forming line of battle a shell burst in the center of Company D, wounding 6 men, two mortally. Here the Tenth, on the extreme left of the brigade, drove back the first line of blue, was charged and nearly surrounded by the second line and forced back. A second time the men charged, and a third, and each time were repulsed. The ammunition was exhausted and the rifles so choked that they had to hammer the ends of the ramrods against trees to force home the balls. Yet they held their position until relieved. Colonel Barr mentioned for conspicuous bravery Sergt, James Franks, Company E; James Bridges, Company H, and Corporal William Clark, Company F, who gallantly carried the colors through the fight with Granger. Also, for gallant conduct: Company A -- First Sergt. P. Bradley, Sergts. L. T. Glaze, J. O. Phillips and Dean, Corporals Collins and Jackson, Privates Cooper, J. P. Walker, A. J. Bradford, J. L. McCarcle and D. Logan. Company B -- First Sergt. F. D. Chaplin, Sergt. Benzell Corporals Douglas, C. Eustis, S. Orr, Privates G. T. Eisele, C. Irvine, James Wright, William Wells, C. Jacquemine, S. W. Griffin. Company C -- Privates William F. Law, Thomas Crayton, William Marrs. Company D -- Privates William Wells, H. Moode, H. K. Bell. Company F -- Sergt. D. O'Brien, Private Barney McCabe, who died within bayonet reach of the enemy. Company G -- Privates L. G. Bullard, N. J. Brown, D. C. Tomkins, J. H. Wright. Company K -- Privates J. M. Prince, M. V. Hopper, Grant Holly, W. C. Lesley, T. L. C. Gresham. Company A -- Captain A. W. Fleming, Lieuts, W. A. Lundy, D. W. C. Smith, J. G. McGowan. Company B -- Capt. R. A. Inge, Lieuts. T. Otis Baker, J. J. Hart, J. J. Gobeau. Company C -- Lieuts. S. B. Jackson, Henry Brown. Company D -- Capt. George Dobson, Lieuts. J. W. File, J. W. Clingan. Company E -- Lieuts. W. F. Harper, T. G. Bean. Company H -- Capt. T. J. Sharp, Lieuts. R. H. L. Ray, P. S. Brown. Company K -- Captain Stewart. The name of A. W. B. Prather, private of Company K, killed, appears in the Roll of Honor.
November 25, 1863, they participated in the battle of Missionary Ridge, where a number were captured, and joined in the retreat to Dalton, where they went into winter quarters.
Return of December 31, 1863, Tenth and Forty-fourth, James Barr, Jr., commanding. By act approved February 13, 1864, the thanks of Congress were tendered the officers and men of the Tenth Mississippi Regiment for having patriotically and in a spirit of self-sacrificing devotion re-enlisted for the war. April return, Capt. Robert A. Bell in command. The brigade under General Tucker was in line at the battle near Rocky Face Ridge early in May, and at Resaca May 14-15, where Tucker was wounded and succeeded by Colonel Sharp, afterward promoted to Brigadier-General. They skirmished at Cassville May 19, fought in the battle of New Hope Church May 26-28, and participated in the fighting of Hood's Corps on the line of Kenesaw Mountain in June. Colonel Barr was wounded near Marietta, June 22, and died in hospital.
The regiment crossed the Chattahoochee July 9, were in the battle of Atlanta July 22, and were posted on the east side of Atlanta until just before the battle of July 28, when they advanced under Gen. S. D. Lee, on the Lickskillet road, west of the city. They approached the Federal line at such a place that they were under heavy fire for a quarter of a mile. The Forty-fourth, in this movement, lost half its numbers, and "the gallant Tenth, on its left," said General Sharp, "was almost as severely punished, losing five color bearers. These two gallant regiments, never known to falter when the order was to forward, were forced to retire." Company A was on the skirmish line with Lieutenant Downing commanding the battalion of sharpshooters, who reported that the company charged in gallant style, driving the Federal skirmishers and losing 2 wounded. He particularly noticed the gallant conduct of Lieuts. James G. McGowan and Joseph J. Dean, of this company, and their men.
Battle of Atlanta, July 28, `864. Maj. J. M. Dotson, wounded. Company A -- 3 privates wounded. Company B - -Captain Inge and First Lieut. T. Otis Baker, wounded; 2 killed, 9 wounded. Company C -- Sergt. T. J. Crayton wounded; 2 killed, 7 wounded. Company D -- 2 killed, 8 severely wounded, 3 left on field. Company E -- 6 wounded. Company F -- Capt, W. R. Daniel wounded; 1 killed, 3 wounded. Company G -- Capt. George McDaniel wounded, Sergt. J. L. Beene killed, Sergt. W. P. McDaniel supposed killed; 3 killed, 7 wounded, 3 missing. Company H --- Capt. T. I. Sharp killed, First Lieut. R. H. L. Ray mortally wounded, Second Lieut. P. S. Brown wounded; 3 killed, 9 wounded Company I -- First Lieut. T. L. Boggan mortally wounded, First Sergt. B. F. Ballard and Corporal T. J. Owens severely wounded. Company K -- Capt. W. P. Stewart wounded; 1 killed, 6 wounded, 1 missing. Color bearers -- 1 killed, 5 wounded.
After a month of digging and skirmishing west of Atlanta the brigade marched with Lee's Corps to Jonesboro and was there distinguished for stubborn fighting in the battle of August 31. Lieut.-Col. George B. Myers was wounded and captured in this battle, and sent as a prisoner of war to Johnson's Island, Lake Erie.
Return September 10, Tenth and Forty-fourth Regiments and Ninth Battalion, Major W. C. Richards commanding. September 28 they recrossed the Chattahoochee, moving northward in General Hood's campaign on the Atlanta and Chattanooga Railroad. Lee's Corps invested Resaca but did not assault, and held Snake Creek gap against Sherman until the remainder of the army had moved toward Gadsden, Ala. Sharp's Brigade, in Ed. Johnson's Division, crossed the Tennessee October 30 and "encountered the enemy on the Florence and Huntsville road about dark. A spirited affair took place, in which the enemy were defeated." (Lee).
November 20 to 26 they moved to Columbia, where General Hood took Johnson's Division, including Sharp's Brigade, to aid in the attempt to cut off the Federal retreat at Spring Hill. Shofield made good his retreat to the intrenched position at Franklin, on the Harpeth River, where Hood attacked November 3o -- one of the bloodiest battles in history. Johnson's Division did not reach the enemy's works until after dark, when Brantly's Brigade was distinguished in a desperate struggle, taking three battle flags, and leaving their dead and wounded in the trenches and on the works. "It was a strange, weird movement, this silent march in the darkness, of Johnson's splendid division, on powerful intrenchments, his only guide being the flash and roar of Brown's guns around the Carter hill on his right flank." They expected to find the ditch full of Confederates keeping up a fight, but on the line they approached, the battle had stopped and Carter's men were dead or wounded or had escaped from the horrible conflict to the rear. Sharp's Brigade approached first and were greeted with a volley so surely aimed that nearly half of the brigade seemed to fall at once to the ground. But the survivors, with a yell, rushed forward to the ditch. The flash of the guns showed Brantly also approaching and a volley equally deadly was poured upon his line. Deas came up behind and to the left of Sharp, and Manigault was driven back by a cross fire that could not be faced. From the trenches parties of the Mississippians would climb upon the works, tear down flags and raise their own, which were in turn pulled down and the daring assailants driven back or killed. They fought with regiments from Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and Michigan. Some o[ Sharp's men took the flag of the One Hundred and Seventh Illinois, and their Lieutenant-Colonel was killed in the attempt to regain it. Part of a Michigan regiment came over the parapet and fired down the Confederate line. Part of Sharp's Brigade could not be driven from their lodgment on the parapets, over which they kept up a fire through the night, being the first troops to enter Franklin when the Union' troops evacuated in the morning. (Charge of Johnson's Division, by J. P. Young).
In this battle Lieut.-Col. Sims, of the Forty-fourth, commanded the Tenth; Lieut. J. G. McGowan commanded Companies A and I; Capt. S. B. Watts, Companies B and H; Capt. J. W. Fite, Companies D and G; Capt. S. B. Jackson, Companies C, E, F and K. Lieut.-Col. Sims was severely wounded; Adjutant William French and Ensign S. C. Lindsay, slightly wounded. Jackson was killed, Watts captured, Fite and McGowan wounded. Total casualties, 13 killed, 35 wounded, 14 missing.
The brigade served in the investment of Nashville from December 2. December 15 Thomas attacked, and Sharp's Brigade and others were sent to the support of Walthall, who was compelled to give way, and Sharp could not stem the tide. A line was taken further back in the night, Sharp's line on the left of the Granny White pike, with Bate's Division on the left. Next day, December 16, the line was broken near them, and General Johnson and many others taken prisoners. The whole army retreated to Brentwood, where General Lee took command of the rear guard. He was wounded the next day. The army crossed the Tennessee River December 27, after terrible experiences, and moved to the prairies of Mississippi to spend the winter. The Tenth arrived at Corinth December 29, at Meridian January 24.
The brigade was furloughed until February 12, 1865. Under orders for the Carolinas, 274 assembled at Meridian February 14. This remnant of the brigade started east on the 18th and was detained some time at Montgomery on account of the Mobile campaign. April 3 the aggregate present was 420. They were ordered to Augusta March 4, and reached South Carolina March 16. Organization of the army near Smithfield, N. C., March 31, 1865, shows the Tenth and Forty-fourth Regiments and Ninth Battalion consolidated under the command of Maj. W. C. Richards. April 9, Sharp's Brigade -- Seventh, Ninth, Tenth, Forty-first and Forty-fourth Regiments and Ninth Battalion -- consolidated as the Ninth Mississippi Regiment, Col. William C. Richards commanding.
The Tenth Regiment was consolidated into three companies, commanded by Capts. John W. Fite, T. Otis Baker and Duncan A. Campbell (Company G). Campbells company had 43 members (Rietti's Annals, page 76.)
Brigadier-General Sharp's Brigade included this regiment, also the Eighth Mississippi Battalion, representing the consolidation of Lowrey's Brigade, and the Twenty-fourth Alabama and Nineteenth South Carolina, the consolidation of Manigault's Brigade. This consolidated brigade was surrendered with S. D. Lee's Corps April 26, 1865, and paroled at Greensboro, N.C. There were 64 men of the old Tenth present. May 2, 1865, they left High Point for home, traveling much of the way on foot. Sergeant Rietti, who kept a daily record, said that the regiment marched 3,500 miles on foot and was transported by rail or water 5,000 miles during its service.
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